By Wesley Muhammad, PhD (c) 2012
The famed Egyptian scholar Taqī ‘l-Dīn Abu ‘l-‘Abbās Aḥmad b. ‘Alī al-Maqrīzī (d. 1364-1442) wrote an important work entitled Kitāb al-Nizāʿ wa ’l-takhāṣum fīmā bayn Banī Umayya wa-Banī Hāshim, “The Book of Contention and Strife between the Banū Umayya and the Banū Hāshim.” Written long after the fall of the Umayyads and the rise of the Abbasids, this work reflects the anti-Umayyad bias and polemic that was current in al-Maqrīzī’s day. Nevertheless, the work is equally critical of the Abbasids, as the author wrote long after the fall of that dynasty in 1258 CE. There is in this work a profoundly insightful and honest passage that affirms so many of the historical developments that I have been documenting, and al-Maqrīzī’s seems to share my evaluation of these developments. In the passage quoted below al-Maqrīzī discusses the influence on Islamic tradition of the Abbasid caliph al-Maʿmūn (reigned 813-833) and his successors al-Muʿtaṣim (r. 833-842), al-Mutawakkil (r. 847-861) and al-Mustaʿīn (r. 862-866).
“This fellow al-Maʿmūn …left one of the worst possible reputations in the whole history of Islam. This arose from the fact that he had books on philosophy translated into Arabic, to such a pitch that heretics and deviationists used them to pervert Islam and to trick the Muslims…He removed from the pay-registers the Arabs, the Messenger of God’s people, the race through whose agency God had established the religion of Islam…In their place, he relied on the Turks. He abandoned Arab dress and clothing, put a crown on his head and wore the dress of the Persians, that race which God had sent his prophet Muhammad to slay and to combat. With al-Muʿtaṣim, and through his deliberate agency, the rule of the Arabs came to an end; henceforth, during his reign and under his political regime, the Turks, upon whom the Messenger of God vowed to make war, assumed power. After him, they (viz. the Turks) secured an ascendency in all the lands. God gave the Turks dominion over al-Muʿtaṣim’s son, Jaʿfar al-Mutawakkil, so that they eventually murdered him. They also murdered al-Muʿtaṣim’s grandson, Aḥmad al-Mustaʿīn. They treated the religion of God as a plaything and established a reign of terror throughout all the provinces of the caliphate.”
In this brief quote al-Maqrīzī alludes to a number of critical developments within Islam during the Abbasid period (750 – 1258 CE):
1. Al-Maqrīzī notes the deleterious impact on Islamic tradition of al-Maʿmūn’s program to translate Greek philosophical works into Arabic and thus making them available to Muslim thinkers. The result has been the ‘Hellenization’ of Islam, i.e. the shaping of Islamic tradition by Greek philosophical ideas and arguments. The most damaging aspect of this ‘Hellenizing’ of Islamic tradition, as I have documented, was the eventual replacing of the anthropomorphic God of Prophet Muhammad and early Islam with the Platonic and Aristotelian ‘Spook God’ of Greek Philosophy and later Islam.
2. Al-Maqrīzī alludes to the Fall of the Arabs: both al-Maʿmūn and al-Muʿtaṣim affected the final demise of the Arabs and the rise of the Turks. Here we thus have the early stages of the “De-Arabization” of Islam and its ‘Turkifaction’ and ‘Persianization’. Both of these processes constitute what I have called the ‘Aryanization’ of Islam, i.e. the later re-shaping of Islam by White (viz. Aryan) converts to Islam: the Persians, Turks, Byzantines, etc.
3. Next al-Maqrīzī makes a startling admission: that the Prophet Muhammad – whom we now know was a Black Arab – was sent by Allah to SLAY the Persians!!! Those who have followed my work know that Sassanian Persia was one of two pillars of White Supremacy in Late Antiquity, the other being the Byzantine Empire. The Black Arabs conquered and destroyed the Persian Sassanian Empire in 650. According to al-Maqrīzī the prophet Muhammad also vowed to make war with the Turks. This is an amazing matter-of-fact confession which suggests that Prophet Muhammad was an early warrior against White Supremacy.
4. According to al-Maqrīzī these transgressions against Islam by these Abbasid caliphs earned them the chastisement of Allah, who allowed these very Turks to gain tyrannical dominion over the caliphs, whom they eventually kill. The Turks, al-Maqrīzī notes, only superficially embraced Islam and treated the religion as a plaything.
These allusions within this important Classical Arabic text cohere with the reconstruction of Islamic history as I have been documenting it, ma sha Allah.